After his final examination, he became head of the furniture workshop. He held that position when the Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1925.
In 1928 he went to Berlin and opened his own architectural studio.
In 1935 he left Germany and settled first in London, where he, together with the architect FRS Yorke founded an architectural firm and later as head of the design department worked at Isokon.
In 1937 he immigrated to the United States and became a professor at the School of Design at Harvard University, a position he held until 1946. Together with Walter Gropius in 1937 he opened an architectural firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where both were active until 1941.
In 1946 he founded his own company in New York, Marcel Breuer & Associates, which he headed until his retirement in 1976.